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The Israel-Gaza Conflict: A Complex and Ongoing Struggle

Leah Ally

Volume 4 Issue 1

November 6, 2023

The Israel-Gaza Conflict: A Complex and Ongoing Struggle

Image provided by ABC News

The Israel-Gaza conflict is a long-standing and complex issue that has been the source of much tension and violence in the Middle East, and here in America. Rooted in historical, political, and religious factors, this conflict has resulted in the loss of countless lives and has had far-reaching consequences for both Israelis and Palestinians. The conflict can be traced back to the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948. Following the end of British colonial rule, Israel declared independence, leading to a war with neighboring Arab states. The war resulted in the displacement of hundreds of thousands of Palestinians, who became refugees in neighboring countries, including Gaza.

Gaza, a small strip of land located on the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea, has been a central point of the conflict. Since 1967, Israel has maintained control over Gaza, although it withdrew its military presence and settlements in 2005. The territory is now governed by Hamas, an Islamist political and military organization that is considered a terrorist group by Israel and several other countries. The conflict between Israel and Gaza is characterized by a cycle of violence and retaliation. Rockets fired from Gaza into Israeli territory have led to Israeli military responses, resulting in casualties on both sides. The Israeli government argues that it has the right to defend its citizens from attacks, while Palestinians in Gaza claim that they are resisting occupation and seeking self-determination.

One of the main issues at the heart of the conflict is the question of land and borders. Palestinians in Gaza, as well as the West Bank, seek the establishment of an independent Palestinian state with East Jerusalem as its capital. However, Israel maintains control over significant portions of the West Bank and continues to build settlements, which are considered illegal under international law. As a result, the expansion of settlements has further fueled tensions between the two sides. Another key factor in the conflict is the issue of security. Israel argues that it must take measures to protect its citizens from terrorist attacks, citing the frequent rocket fire from Gaza as a threat to its national security. In response, Israel has imposed a blockade on Gaza, restricting the movement of goods and people in and out of the territory. Critics argue that the blockade has led to a humanitarian crisis, with limited access to basic necessities such as food, water, and healthcare.

The conflict also has deep religious and cultural dimensions. Jerusalem, a city considered holy by Jews, Muslims, and Christians, has been a flashpoint for tensions. The status of Jerusalem, particularly the control over the holy sites, has been a contentious issue in peace negotiations. The competing claims and religious significance of the city have further complicated efforts to find a resolution to the conflict. According to, "On November 29, 1947 the United Nations adopted Resolution 181 (also known as the Partition Resolution) that would divide Great Britain’s former Palestinian mandate into Jewish and Arab states in May 1948 when the British mandate was scheduled to end," bringing the city of Jerusalem "under international governance" and giving it special legal and political status as a "corpus separatum," meaning separate body. Efforts to achieve a lasting peace between Israel and Gaza have been ongoing for decades. Numerous peace agreements, such as the Oslo Accords in the 1990s, have been signed, but have ultimately failed to bring about a lasting solution. The lack of trust, deep-rooted grievances, and political divisions on both sides have delayed progress towards a peaceful resolution. International factors including the United Nations, the United States, and regional powers, have been involved in mediating the conflict. However, finding a solution that satisfies the aspirations and security concerns of both Israelis and Palestinians remains a daunting task. 


The Israel-Gaza conflict is a complex and deeply entrenched struggle that has resulted in immense suffering for both Israelis and Palestinians. The issues of land, security, and religious significance have contributed to the ongoing cycle of violence and retaliation. Achieving a lasting peace will require political will, compromise, and a commitment to dialogue and understanding from all parties involved. Most feel only through a comprehensive and inclusive approach can a just and sustainable resolution to this conflict be achieved. 


Sources: Israel Gaza war: History of the conflict explained - BBC News 

Israel-Palestine history: The deep roots of the Israel-Gaza conflict - Vox 

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